The standard language requirements for advancement to candidacy (by the end of the 7th semester) are two modern research languages (normally French and German although students may request substitution by another research language as appropriate) and at least two ancient/late ancient languages at the advanced level. Depending on research needs, some students may be advised to take a third language at the intermediate level. These include a selection of the following: Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac, Greek, Latin, Ethiopic, Middle Persian, Coptic, and Arabic. Successful applicants usually demonstrate proficiency in two such languages at the time of entering the program. For the Language Concentration Track (see below), students would demonstrate proficiency in a fourth language at the intermediate level.